Municipal governance in India has started with the formation of Madras Municipal Corporation in 1687.As per the Constitution of India, 74th Amendment Act of 1992, following is the Administrative structure of India:-
- Mahanagar Nigam (municipal corporation)
- Nagar Palika (municipality)
- Nagar Panchayat(notified area council, city council)
Suggested Municipal Functions
The suggested functions to municipal corporations, municipalities and nagar panchayats are listed in the table below.
|Essentially Municipal Functions||Municipal Corporation||Municipal Council||Nagar Panchayat|
|Urban planning including town planning||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Regulation of land-use and construction of buildings||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Planning for economic and social development||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Roads and bridges||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Water supply domestic, Industrial and commercial purposes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Public health, sanitation, conservancy and solid waste management||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Preventive Health Care||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Provision of urban amenities and facilities such as parks, gardens, playgrounds||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Burials and burial grounds, cremations, cremation ghats/grounds and electric crematoria||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Cattle pounds, prevention of cruelty to animals||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Vital statistics including registration of births and deaths||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Parking lots, bus stops and public conveniences||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Regulation of slaughter houses and tanneries||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Slum improvement and up gradation||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Protection of the environment and promotion of ecological aspects||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Safeguarding the interests of weaker sections of society, including the handicapped and the mentally retarded||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Urban poverty alleviation||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Promotion of cultural, education and aesthetic aspects||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Primary Health Care||Yes||Yes||Yes|
Municipal Corporation (Nagar Nigam/Mahanagar Palika)
Municipality (Nagar Palika) (Nagaratchi)
The members of the Nagar palika are elected representatives for a term of five years. The town is divided into wards according to its population, and representatives are elected from each ward. The members elect a president among themselves to preside over and conduct meetings. A chief officer, along with officers like an engineer, sanitary inspector, health officer and education officer who come from the state public service are appointed by the state government to control the administrative affairs of the Nagar Palika.
Notified Area (Nagar Panchayat) (Perooratchi)
A Nagar Panchayat or Notified Area Council or City Council is a form of an urban political unit in India comparable to a municipality. An urban centre with more than 11,000 and less than 25,000 inhabitants is classified as a “Nagar Panchayat”.
Each Nagar Panchayat has a committee consisting of a chairman with ward members. Membership consists of a minimum of ten elected ward members and three nominated members. The N.A.C. members of the Nagar Panchayat are elected from the several wards of the Nagar Panchayat on the basis of adult franchise for a term of five years. There are seats reserved for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, backward classes and women. The Councillors or Ward Members are chosen by direct election from electoral wards in the Nagar Panchayat.